Friday, July 24, 2020

Things That Arent Studying

Things That Aren’t Studying Two weeks ago, my life was studying. On three consecutive days, I had 7.013, 8.02, and 5.12. (My brain is still recovering from the trauma.) So last week, I decided to make up for it bydoing a 9.00 essay? How, uh, relaxing. And now, to punctuate the beginning of this week, Ive got a 5.12 p-set, an 8.02 p-set, and a 9.00 test all to be taken or to be turned in on that same day. If I start sounding unintelligible, its because my brain cant do the think now because it thunk too hard and wants moosh made of it now blah. (Editors note: my spell-checker just insisted that thunk is actually a word. I hope they meant it was onomatopoetic) But luckily for me, I began procrastinating hardcore turned last week into a study break of dubious productivity. And I Gave people MRIs. Its one of those things that you could feasibly learn to do before learning to drive. Purely hypothetical situation, ladies and gentlemen. Pictured: mad geek cred.Building 46, home of the Brain and Cognitive Sciences department, has its own fMRI machine, and at MIT, there always needs to be at least two people manning the controls. There are green/blue badges and yellow badges, which are to the A.A. Martinos Imaging Center what drivers licenses and learners permits are to the roads. As with driving, practice makes perfect so naturally, Ive done 3 scans (and counting!) Ate a burrito THREE burritos. Including a double golden burrito! What does it mean?!When I first got my grub (on Wednesday-ish of that week), I despaired, since I wasnt quite sure whether it would turn into a triple golden burrito. But it did. (But on Saturday.) Auditioned for Mic Check and moved on! That might not seem like such a big deal, but its actually harder to make it through auditions than you might think. Just ask guest blogger Susan Shepherd. Personally, I wrote a slam poem lasting roughly five minutes a mere two days before auditions, then lost plenty of sleep as I memorized every line. Despite the complex internal rhymes and references, the stiff competition meant I had to wait a little longer to see if I had been accepted which, actually, is really awesome, since that means Engineers arent just engineers at MIT.But heres a fun fact: both my roommate and I are performing that night. Coincidence? Or was our room blessed by the patron saints of art? Ill leave that to wild speculation. Its worth noting that if I win any prize at all, I still wont be the first (prospective) doctor to make a living out of making rhymes. Laughed at bad chemistry jokes, because thats my life now. When chemists die, we Barium. Found on the internet! And some others! Like, Dead chemists are not remembered when they Argon a gem from Alex, one of my friends back in high school. Or a brain-teaser: If a bear in Yosemite and one in Alaska both fall into the water, which one dissolves faster? The one in Alaska, because it is polar. Nyuck nyuck nyuck. So punny, all of it. Binged on reading Reddit and various macros. Im particularly a sucker for Joseph Ducreux ones, because at one point of my life, I sort of wrote like that. Went 8-4-8 against a computer in Rock Paper Scissors. On Veteran difficulty. A hat tip to my boss, Chris Peterson, for finding this challenge. He equated it to playing Jeopardy with Watson and its an apt comparison, because it was kind of hard to get even those eight wins in edgewise. Its even worse when you consider that the program was probably designed to win or tie more than it lost.At some point, I may welcome the monopolization of RPS skills by robot overlords, but for right now, I still have a shred of pride. So for the time being, call me the Ken Jennings of Rock Paper Scissors. Wrote this blog post, punctuating my inability to reason with this procrastination vice. As comprehensive as this list seems, I know theres so much more that Im missing! So now, let me ask you, kind readers: How do you like to procrastinate?

Friday, May 22, 2020

Enron The Smartest Guys in the Room Essay - 1889 Words

The thing I liked most about this documentary was the fact that it focused on the guys at the top, the self-proclaimed smartest men in the room, the so-called geniuses who knew the energy business so much better than the rest of the industry. And what a piece of work these men were. Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room shows us how basic human nature does not change, whether its in the easy fall into killing as a means to resolve disputes, or in the incessant human obsession to acquire for acquisitions sake. This all makes for terrible human actions. One particular sequence of the film shows a series of Enron commercials that feature the Enron motto ask why. This rings almost like a corporate version of a Jack the Ripper taunt to†¦show more content†¦He was the one who hired Skilling after a similar scandal in the 1980s nearly derailed the company, never concerned with ethics, only profits. Lay even sickeningly and psychotically compares his and Enrons criminal behavior, an d the criticism of it, with the 9/11 attacks. All three started dumping their stock based on their most inside information months before the company tanked, and this forms the bases of the cases against Skilling and Lay, which are underway. Fastow opted to fink out on his bosses, after they set him up as the fall guy. If this film does not prove, once and for all, that the glorious myth of the free market is a fraud, nothing will. On the superficial level, the attitudes and motives behind the events and decisions causing eventual downfall seem simple enough: collective and individual greed created in the atmosphere of corporate arrogance. As Enrons reputation in the global environment grew, the internal culture of the organization began to worsen significantly. Skilling, Enron Chief Executive, founded the Performance Review Committee, PRC, which gained the reputation of the harshest employee-ranking system in the whole country. Theoretically, this review system was based on the valu es of Enron - respect, integrity, communication and excellence (RICE). But at the end of theShow MoreRelatedEnron, the Smartest Guys in the Room.1229 Words   |  5 PagesEnron, the Smartest Guys in the Room. Enron was involved in American’s largest corporate bankruptcy. It is a story about people, and in reality it is a tragedy. Enron made their stock sky rocket through unethical means, and in reality this company kept losing money. The primary value operating among the traders was greed, money, and how to make profits under any circumstance. The traders thought that a good trader is a creative trader and the creative trader can find any arbitrage opportunityRead MoreEnron Smartest Guys On The Room1573 Words   |  7 PagesThe movie ENRON smartest guys in the room is about one of the biggest corporation corruptions in the United States. In 1985, ENRON Corporation, was a company that delivers pipeline for natural gas and electricity, while mergering with Houston Natural Gas and Internorth. ENRON quickly grew into a reputable company that generated enormous profits. In a short period of time ENRON was considered one of the top global trading company for natural gas, commodities, and electricity. According to the statistic;Read MoreEnron : The Smartest Guys Of The Room Essay1549 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Enron was a Houston based energy, commodities and services company. When people hear the name Enron they automatically associate their name with one of the biggest accounting and ethical scandals known to date. The documentary, â€Å"Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room,† provides an in depth examination of Enron and the Enron scandal. The film does a wonderful job of depicting the downfall of Enron and how the corporate culture and ethics were key to Enron’s fall. As the movie suggests, Enron is â€Å"notRead MoreEnron: the Smartest Guys in the Room1989 Words   |  8 Pages it took Enron 16 years to go from about $10 billion of assets to $65 billion of assets, and 24 days to go bankruptcy. Enron is also one of the most celebrated business ethics cases in the century. There are so many things that went wrong within the organization, from all personal (prescriptive and psychological approaches), managerial (group norms, reward system, etc.), and organizational (worl d-class culture) perspectives. This paper will focus on the business ethics issues at Enron that wereRead MoreEnron Case : The Smartest Guys Of The Room1149 Words   |  5 Pages In review of the Enron case, executives higher up exploited their privileges and power, participated in unreliable treatment of external and internal communities. These executives placed their own agendas over the employees and public, and neglected to accept responsibility for ethical downfalls or use appropriate management. As a result, employees followed their unethical behavior (Johnson, 2015). Leaders have great influence in an organization, but policies will not be effectiveRead MoreEnron: the Smartest Guys in the Room Essay1834 Words   |  8 Pagesthis paper is consider three possible rationales for why Enron collapsed—that key individuals were flawed, that the organization was flawed, and that some factors larger than the organization (e.g., a trend toward deregulation) led to Enron’s collapse. In viewing â€Å"Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room† it was clear that all three of these flaws contributed to the demise of Enron, but it was the synergy of their combination that truly let Enron to its ultimate path of destruction. As in any organizationRead MoreEssay on Enron: the Smartest Guys in the Room5209 Words   |  21 Pagesï » ¿Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room The  Enron scandal, revealed in October 2001, eventually led to the  bankruptcy  of the  Enron Corporation, an American  energy company based in  Houston, Texas, and the de facto dissolution of  Arthur Andersen, which was one of the  five largest  audit  and accountancy  partnerships  in the world. In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history at that time, Enron was attributed as the biggest audit failure. Enron was formed in 1985 by  KennethRead MoreA Film Review of Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room666 Words   |  3 PagesAbstract This is a review of the movie, Enron: The Smart Guys in the Room. The paper analyses the themes that contributed to the downfall of Enron. It also considers steps that Human Resources would have taken given the chance, in addressing the issues that contributed to the collapse of the Company. Factor That Led To Enrons Downfall According to the documentary Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room, it seems that one major reasons that led to Enrons down fall was; unethical corporate behaviorRead MoreEssay about Enron: The Smartest Guys In The Room1948 Words   |  8 Pages it took Enron 16 years to go from about $10 billion of assets to $65 billion of assets, and 24 days to go bankruptcy. Enron is also one of the most celebrated business ethics cases in the century. There are so many things that went wrong within the organization, from all personal (prescriptive and psychological approaches), managerial (group norms, reward system, etc.), and organizational (world-class culture) perspectives. This paper will focus on the business ethics issues at Enron that wereRead MoreThe Smartest Guys At The Room : The Amazing Rise And Scandalous Fall Of Enron1654 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The Smartest Guys In the Room† the amazing rise and scandalous fall of Enron goes into great detail of what happens when a com pany has no ethics. It could be said that ethics was the last thing on the minds of the executives that worked at Enron. People employed at Enron cared about two things the stock price of the company, and the money they could put in their own pockets. This was what caused the fall of one of the biggest energy companies in the U.S†¦ Enron failing did not happen overnight it

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Arguments For The Existence Of God - 1056 Words

Amie Kamara Professor Davidson Theology 16 November 2015 Rough Draft for The arguments for the Existence of God. The question Does God Exist? is a well-known asked question in the world. Most people believe they know the answer to it. The religious people would say, well of course he does, while the non-religious people or atheist would say no He does not exist. Because evil exist and chaos exists, God cannot be all-powerful. In the modern world, there are many different opinions as to whether a God exists or not. This has been an issue of great dispute because many people reverence different gods or no god at all. For years, many philosophers have come up with theories, proofs, and hypotheses to prove the existence of God, and a canon of arguments has been developed. The Arguments for the Existence of God sets out to explain the everyday philosophical arguments for theism, and so to explore the case for the existence of God. The arguments themselves are arranged under the following headings: The Ontological Argument, The Cosmological Argu ment, The Teleological Argument, and The Moral Argument will determine if there really is a God. The ontological argument An argument that attempts to prove the existence of God through abstract reasoning alone is known as the Ontological argument. The argument begins with a clear explanation of the concept of God. When people talk or think about God they usually think or say that he s a perfect being meaning He is flawless, idealShow MoreRelatedThe Argument On The Existence Of God1629 Words   |  7 PagesThe idea of God has been a part of man’s history for centuries. Since time began there has been various combination of believers, and non-believers. Individuals who believes in God, belong to many different religion. Whereas, skeptics find the existence of God somewhat baffling, and have continually sought answers to His existence through scientific methods. As the world progresses in scientific, and technological advancement, the human race still faces the question of God’s existence. Many philosophersRead MoreThe Argument For The Existence Of God1674 Words   |  7 Pagesfind the thr ee arguments I analyzed satisfactory for the existence of God. The existence of God simply cannot be proven. Regardless of how strong a person’s faith is, or how many miracles they claim to have witnessed, God can only ever be a possibility. First, I will discuss why Pascal’s wager is not a satisfying argument for the existence of God. I will then examine C.D. Broad’s â€Å"Argument for the Existence of God†, and why it is also not a satisfying argument for the existence of God. Finally, IRead MoreArguments For The Existence Of God974 Words   |  4 PagesArguments for the existence of God through critical thinking and rationalization are called ontological, cosmological, teleological, or pragmeatic arguments. The most widely known of such arguments is that of St. Anselm from Proslogium of St. Anselm, which states that God is considered a perfect being unlike humans or any other world subject. The fact that he is perfect in a world of imperfection proves his existence. God is also the highest conceivable idea of perfection, and thereforeRead MoreThe Existence Of God : An Argument881 Words   |  4 PagesThe Existence of God The philosophical arguments presented in this document are not of religious text, nor scientific observation or established fact. Rather the premise of this God proof is bring together and share the various theories on which other God proofs have established foundations. I have heard it quoted that â€Å"Philosophy goes where hard science can t, or won t. Philosophers have a license to.† Therefore, with this in mind, I attest that it is more than problematic to construct anRead MoreArguments on the Existence of God602 Words   |  2 PagesGod’s existence may actually depend upon our belief in his existence but it is more plausible to believe that God exists using the different types of arguments such as the cosmological argument and ontological argument, Leibniz and the Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Problem of Evil, and the definition of basic belief as evidence. The Cosmological argument can be simplified into three reasons that everything that begins to exist has a cause; the universe began to exist, therefore the universeRead MoreArguments For The Existence Of God1137 Words   |  5 PagesArguments for the existence of God come in many different forms; some draw on history, some on science, some on personal experience, and some on philosophy. Descartes offered two arguments towards the existence of God: an informal proof in the third meditation and the ontological proof in the fifth meditation. Descartes believed that with the employment of a rational method of inquiry which applied some of the methods of analytic geometry to the study of philosophy, our ability to attain certaintyRead MoreThe Argument Of The Existence Of God1480 Words   |  6 PagesThe arguments trying to â€Å"prove† the existence of God are by far some of the most controversial philosophical arguments out there. When some of the people who created these philo sophies it was illegal or even punishable by death to even question his existence, let alone try to come up with a logical explanation to â€Å"prove† he is real. The two main arguments used today are the ontological argument and the cosmological argument. Neither one of these arguments are correct nor incorrect; moreover, theRead MoreThe Arguments For The Existence Of God940 Words   |  4 Pagesp. 209, question# 1 Among the numerous arguments for the existence of God, the argument of design stands as the most persuasive in terms of providing a logical basis for the absolute presence of God. This argument is concerned with the intricate nature of creation and existence: one must believe that there is a Supreme Being that designed the characteristics and features of every existing thing in the entire universe, both living and non-living. The precise and complicated design of the universeRead MoreThe Argument For The Existence Of God1411 Words   |  6 PagesMy paper scrutinizes numerous logical disputes for and alongside the presence of God. I shall argue that there’s no adequate evidence or inclusive arguments for the existence of God. It is grounded on the views of certain great philosophers and scientists of all of mankind. Generally speaking for myself, I would correspond to have faith that there is â€Å"God†. Regrettably, it’s awfully well-defined that the being built up on insightful faith is no longer a suitable custom to shadow. During the courseRead MoreThe Cosmological Argument For The Existence Of God Essay1556 Words   |  7 Pagesconcerning the existence of God. If God exists, we probably have to make him accountable. The universe would probably have a meaning and a purpose. Also, our very existence may not be cease after physical death. But if God does not exist, we are probably here by chance and we have no accountability to any transcendent. This life is probably all we have, so we should live as we please. The question arises - Does God exist? At first glance, it seems contradictory to prove the existence of something

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald Free Essays

For my book report, I chose to read The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. It is a novel set in the twenties when the American economy was soaring (SparkNotes†¦). We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald or any similar topic only for you Order Now I choose this book because I had it in my bookshelf for a long time, but never found time to read it. I had no expectations of this book because I had never heard anything about it, and the summary on the back was un-descriptive. In this paper I will accurately and specifically go into the characters of the book, and present the themes, motifs and symbols of The Great Gatsby.The Great Gatsby has five important characters, all which play very different and crucial roles to the story. Tom, Daisy, Jordan and Gatsby are the characters who are rich, indulgent and selfish (Homework†¦). Nick is the narrator as well as the only one who leaves a modest live, and seems to have a moral compass. I found the characters in The Great Gatsby exaggerated and unrealistic. The group of rich people had great drive, but all had no conscience or morals. Nick is the most morally sound of the group, seemingly because his lack of riches (The Great Gatsby). The main character of the book is also the inspiration of the title, Jay Gatsby (SparkNotes†¦). He is a complicated character and we get to know him at many different stages of his life. We meet him as extravagantly rich and successful Gatsby, (Ross). He has the means to have extravagant parties every Saturdays, but he seems to be desperately searching for something. We learn about the history of Gatsby When learn that at one point he was called James Gatz (The Great Gatsby). He was poor and dreamed of the day he would have all the money he wanted. He fell in love with Daisy before leaving to fight in the war, but the pressure of parents and society were so great to marry someone in her ‘class’, she broke and married Tom. When Gatsby returned and realized Daisy had married, he was heartbroken. He worked for Dan Cody; a bootlegger involved with illegal things. Gatsby gets into the business and makes his fortune (NovelGuide. com). We learn that Gatsby has parties only because he knows that Daisy lives across the lake and hopes against odds that she will stumble into one and they will be reunited. We see that his moral code is also skewed when he has nothing against having an affair with Daisy. By the end of the story, we conclude that Gatsby is innocent dreamer who puts to much faith in people. He believes that Daisy is flawless, and all she does is disappoint him (SparkNotes†¦). His trust of Daisy and of unattainably dreams ultimate leads to his death (Homework†¦). The main theme of The Great Gatsby is the disintegration of the American dream in a time of major economic prosperity (SparkNotes†¦). Although the twenties were a time of wealth, parties, and pleasure; Fitzgerald is showing the moral corruptness of the culture as a whole. Another crucial theme in this book is class of peoples. Daisy marries Tom instead of Gatsby because of his position and wealth. She loves Gatsby, but she would rather have money and a good reputation (Homework†¦). Jordan and Nick try to have a relationship but it doesn’t work because their differences in class. Jordan follows in Daisy’s shoes and has a â€Å"shotgun† wedding to a rich man instead of Nick. There are two main motifs if this book. There are two peninsulas just outside New York which are crucial to this story, West Egg and East Egg. The East Egg is where the wealthy and â€Å"old aristocrats† live (SparkNote†¦). Daisy, Tom and Jordan live there. Nick and Gatsby live on West Egg; this is where the newly rich live. These are the showy rich who the East Egg people look down on. The geography of the country is also important. We know this by how the book highlights the differences between living out West and in the East. The East is grouped with New York and represents the moral decay of the wealthy while the West is seen as a more traditional and conservative which values morals and truth (SparkNotes†¦). We see two main symbols in this book. When Nick first sees Gatsby, he doesn’t introduce himself because Gatsby is staring intensely across his lake at a green light. We later learn that that light is on Daisy’s dock, and that Gatsby watches it to feel connected with her. This shows how he looks forward in his life, and believes in his dream. He has drive to get what he wants, without being afraid to work and strive for it (SparkNotes†¦). There is a billboard at a garage in the Valley of Ashes (the road between East and West Egg) that has giant spectacled eyes painted on. These are the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg, and are an ad for his practice. These eyes watch all the characters at different times and may represent the eyes of God (SparkNotes†¦). We see this because they make Tom uncomfortable when going to visit his mistress and because a man points to them saying, â€Å"God sees everything† (128). Although no one is ever punished, these eyes are the reminder of guilt for characters at different times (Homework†¦). There is no obvious spirituism to show a fear of, or lack of fear, in a god. Though not specially shown, the lack of morals shows the characters lack of trust in God. All wealthy characters have carelessness for others. When Nick tells Jordan she is an bad driver and should stay off the roads because she will hurt other drivers she says, â€Å"they’ll keep out of my way† (63). When Daisy hit Tom’s mistress with her car, she did not even attempt to go back and see the damage she did, just drove on like nothing happened. The rich can afford to run away from their problems– so they no longer have the necessity for god when they can solve all there problems. This paper accurately went into the characters of the book, and presented the themes, motifs and symbols of The Great Gatsby. I did not enjoy this book because the plot was slow and the storyline weak. This book was hard to identify with because it was in such a different time then I live. I didn`t enjoy this book and would not recommend it to anyone. How to cite The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Role of Geographic Information Systems in Climatology free essay sample

Climate change is a problem that is affecting people and the environment in the modern world. The average weather conditions are changing and the intensity of extreme weather events is becoming greater. It remains to be seen if this is a natural progression of the earth over time or if humans are exacerbating it, but it is clear that there is a change occurring in today’s weather patterns. The purpose of this literature review is to look at current studies in climatology and the role that Geographic Information Systems (GIS) plays in helping to visualize the effects weather is having on the Earth. Climatology and GIS Climatology and GIS separately are broad fields covering many topics that vary in scope. To receive an overview of climatology and GIS used in conjunction with each other, the article that will be first discussed examines the use of GIS in the field of climatology and meteorology. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Geographic Information Systems in Climatology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The study breaks down climatology and meteorology into the subfields of agriculture, ecology, forestry, health and disease, weather forecasting, hydrology, transport, urban environments, and energy (Chapman 2007). The article looks at applied research in spatial climate data. Results of this study provide evidence that the use of GIS is an integral part of the ongoing study of climatology. GIS has evolved into a powerful management tool used for capturing, modeling, analyzing, and displaying spatial data (Chapman 2007). Since climatological phenomena happen in spatial variables, it makes GIS a useful application to manage spatial climate datasets. Applications of Climatology and GIS GIS maps have enabled researchers looking at environmental impacts of the variations of climate at a variety of scales, but I will focus on two main aspects of applications within the field of Climatology. The two focuses will be on applications within agriculture and ecology. This section will outline literature that use GIS as a tool to analyze climate datasets. Agriculture There is potential for GIS to help in the field of agricultural climatology by helping to predict yields, fertility, and future climate models. An example of this is provided by (McKenney 2000) using thin plate splines to model climate gradients in Canada to determine plant hardiness zones. By using a trivariate position of latitude, longitude, and elevation, maps of temperature, and rainfall enabled the mapping of each variable required for plant hardiness at a 1km resolution (McKenney 2000). The methods that are provided show a repeatable, objective approach to mapping climate and plant hardiness that can be used throughout the world. Spatially reliable estimates of climate provide a better basis for assessing climate impacts, with or without climate change. Elevation is an important part for determining both temperature and precipitation. When overlaying the new map of plant hardiness with the old map of plant hardiness in Canada you can see that changes are more pronounced in western Canada, and are consistent with what is known about climate change. The zones are associated with probabilities of plant survival in relation to average; broad scale conditions (McKenney 2000). Extreme variations, local topography and human interventions can have a significant impact on plant survival in any particular location. Another example of the use of GIS techniques in agricultural climatology is in McKenney et al. (2007) where they look at traditional plant hardiness zone maps to identify areas that are relatively homogenous with respect to climate conditions that affect plant survival. Using climate envelopes to map the potential range of plant species in North America in wild and cultivated settings they show the predicated climate change impacts can be incorporated into models. The plant hardiness zones are traditionally defined by using extreme minimum temperature (McKenney 2007). In their different approach to looking at traditional plant hardiness zones, they attempt to develop a generic, transparent, and repeatable process for showing the potential distribution of large numbers of perennial plant species. In order to accomplish this they summarize the minimum and maximum values for different climate variables at locations where a species is known to survive and then mapping the potential range of the species by identifying all locations with conditions that fall within those extents (McKenney 2007). With the climate envelope approach, it is relatively simple way to incorporate predicted impacts related to climate change. In the study, (Dockerty 2003), they use climate models to show the potential impacts of climate change on nature reserves by looking at 241 plant species from a sample of 86 nature reserves in Great Britain. Present-day and potential future climatic values over the next 100 years are compared against the climatic ranges of the species to determine future climatic suitability for species at each site. The results showed that warming climate would favor a large portion of plants on Scottish reserves and be less favorable for many plant reserves in the south of England (Dockerty 2003). They overlayed climate envelopes of the same species found together as fossils to estimate past temperatures at the site from the area of overlap of climatic envelopes. They created the model using ArcGIS to show potential future values of variables at different location derived from three climate change scenarios. Future climate scenarios are constructed and the climatic values from these scenarios are used with the climate space models to determine the likelihood of the species occurrence at the location in the future as the climate changes (Dockerty 2003). The results in the article show that the models used are capable of providing a tool to help conservation resources towards protecting communities in regions that are least likely to be negatively impacted by climate change. Species respond individually to climate change and can be evaluated at a particular location to show that increases in temperature will lead to climates that are more optimal to some species and less optimal for the same species in different locations. A GIS-based computer model was used to identify climate change adaptation ssues arising in regional agricultural production systems in the article, (Sposito 2009), by integrating land suitability analysis with uncertainty analysis to determine optimal agricultural land at a regional scale. This study involves the South West region of Victoria, Australia and looks at current and future climate conditions and the adaptation responses to the challenge posed by climate change. The article identifies areas that are under threat of productivity decline and suggest alternative agriculture commodities that would be more suitable under different climate conditions. The model uses multi-criteria decision making and GIS to map the degree of land suitability for the growth of several agricultural commodities, given current and future climate conditions (Sposito 2009). Agriculture covers 60% of the state’s total land surface and was the reason Victoria, Australia was chosen for this model. The baseline year chosen was 2000 and the future predictions were for the year 2050. The model was created in ArcView GIS and ranked areas in terms of suitability for the growth of the commodity under consideration. The regional areas that may be unsuitable for a current agricultural system may one day become suitable in the future because of climate change. Exploring the possibility of interpreting climate impacts and presenting it in GIS-based visualizations that can be used at the local level can be found in Dockerty (2005). A GIS database was constructed for Norfolk in Great Britain to show the agricultural landscape that undergoes climate change in the 2020s. The article focuses on expressing climate change in a visual format because it can be absorbed by the human brain much more efficiently than textual information. They link GIS databases with more sophisticated visualization tools to be able to alter viewpoints, terrain, or positions of buildings and vegetation (Dockerty 2005). It is necessary to create future scenarios that exclude climate change effects alongside scenarios that include climate change effects to be able to prepare for all possible future outcomes. GIS is also used in agriculture to monitor future air temperature and precipitation that will have potential effects on plant yields. In Ninyerola (2000), the article studies the modeling and mapping of air temperature and total precipitation using GIS techniques. The geographical area that is used is in northeast Spain where they developed multiple regression analysis between meteorological variables and geographical variables to produce a general model that can be used over a relatively large area. These techniques are used to create accurate and objective monthly and annual climatic maps of air temperature and precipitation that can be used to show where plant species will be able to grow with maximum yields and to show where future problems will occur for plant species due to temperature and precipitation changes over time. Ecology In much the same way that potential crop distribution can be modeled with GIS, ecological biodiversity can be modeled with respect to spatial climate datasets (Chapman 2007). For example, Eatherall (1996) looks at future climate scenarios that have been applied to five United Kingdom sites to see if they are sensitive to climate change using a model based approach. The model is used to show the effect of the other sub-models on the grassland model. The linked model consists of water balance, grassland, evapotranspiration, and interactions between sub-models (Eatherall 1996). The models show that there is a significant impact on United Kingdom grassland productivity and water resource planning due to impacts of future climate change. In Cowell (2003), they look at uncertainty theories with GIS for modeling coastal hazards of climate change. They present a GIS model that integrates existing predictive model using a differential approach, random simulation, and fuzzy set theory for predicting coastal hazards as effects of sea-level induced recession and storm erosion (Cowell 2003). The model can be used to predict different scenarios of coastal hazards with uncertainties, but can be used in other fields that involve predictive modeling under uncertainty. The coastal impact of climate change looks at greater frequency of storm surge, sea-level rise of ocean water, and the changes in wave patterns. The uncertainties that are involved in this study are a result of the highly complex nature of coastal processes that are found across time and space. Grid raster-based modeling techniques were used in this model. The study area, Fingal Bay Beach, is located north of Sydney, Australia and was selected because it represented a typical beach in SE Australia. This study shows that differential, fuzzy set, and random simulation models can be combined to predict hazard probability due to coastal impact of climate change (Cowell 2003). The demand for developing and using environmentally friendly renewable energy has lead to an increase in the use of wind farms. In the article Baban et. al (2000) looks at applying a GIS-assisted approach to locating wind farms in the United Kingdom. A GIS model was created to apply criteria using two different methods to combine layers that were first weighted as equally important and then were graded as perceived importance. The criteria used to locate areas that are suitable for wind farms were compiled by sending out questionnaires to both the public and private sector. The major factors that were included were proximity to residential areas, noise, greenbelt, topography, ecology, conservation areas, and distance from electricity gridlines (Baban 2000). GIS was used to give weights to each layer and different scores to each attribute within the layers using reclassification and buffer generation methods. The maps show the most and least suitable areas for locating wind farms. GIS has the capability to manage large amounts of data while being able to be used for modeling impacts of proposed and operational sites to avoid future climate change problems created by current energy resources. Conclusions In recent years, the use of GIS in a variety of applications involving the process of climatological data has increased. GIS can be used to derive and enhance data by taking climate change data and producing maps that can be used for a variety of different applications. The use of GIS has increased due to the more commercial presence of GIS products on the market, as well as the advances in computer processing ability. As computers become increasingly able to handle high-resolution datasets, the easier it will be to use GIS in climatology and to manage the manipulation of spatial data. They have shown through applications in agriculture and ecology climatology support the future use of GIS as a legitimate tool to be used in both scholarly and professional applications.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

What Do SAT Subscores Mean Expert Guide

What Do SAT Subscores Mean Expert Guide SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips On first glance, your SAT score report may look completely confusing. Altogether, you’ll get a total of 15 distinct scores, or 18 if you take the essay section! While the scores are numerous, they're also helpful. They put your results under the microscope andgive you detailed feedback about your performance. This guide will demystify all these test scores, cross-test scores, and subscores so you can make the most out of yourSAT score report. Let’s start with a glossary to help you keep track of all the different score types. SAT Score Types: A Glossary These are all the scores that you'll get on your SAT score report. You'll also find out what percentiles your scores represent, or how you did compared to other test-takers in your grade. Total score:your two section scores added together. Section scores:your Math score and your Evidence-Based Reading and Writing score from 200 - 800. Test scores:your Reading, Writing and Language, and Math scores; range from 10 to 40. SAT essay scores:three scores for Reading, Analysis, and Writing, each between 2 and 8. Cross-test scores:a score for Analysis in History/Social Studies and a score for Analysis in Science, both between 10 and 40. Subscores:four subscores for skill areas in Reading and Writing and three for skill areas in Math; range between 1 and 15. As you can see, there are several score types with various scales. But how do these score types add up to 15 (or 18 with the essay) scores? Check out the chart below for the full breakdown. SAT Score Ranges: Full Breakdown # of Scores Score Type Description Score Range 1 Total score Sum of the two section scores 400-1600 2 Section scores Evidence-based Reading and Writing + Math 200-800 3 Test scores Reading, Writing and Language, and Math 10-40 3 SAT Essay scores Reading, Analysis, and Writing 2 - 8 2 Cross-test scores Analysis in History/Social Studies and Analysis in Science. These scores are based on selected questions in all three sections. 10-40 7 Subscores From Evidence-based Reading and Writing: Command of Evidence, Words in Context,Expression of Ideas, and Standard English Conventions. From Math: Heart of Algebra, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Passport to Advanced Math. 1-15 The most important scores for college and the ones with which you’re probably most familiar are your section and total scores. A perfect total score is 1600, and an average SAT scorefalls somewhere around 1000. Regardingsections, perfect section scores are 800, and average section scores fall around 500. While the new SAT scale should be relatively familiar tomost students, the cross-test scores and subscores are a bit unusual. Let’s take a closer look at what exactly these scores measure and why they’re important to understand. Like a weird hybrid pluot (plum + apricot), cross-test scores select from across sections to bring you an entirely new speciesof score. What Are SAT Cross-Test Scores? Cross-test scores represent your performance on questions across all three sections, Reading, Writing and Language, and Math. College Board categorizes questions into certain skill areas. The two skill areas that you need to know about to understand cross-test scores are called Analysis in History/Social Studies and Analysis in Science. You might be surprised to learn that there are questions in Reading, Writing and Language, and Math that are considered to measure your Analysis in History/Social Studies andAnalysis in Science skills. These skill areas aren’t limited to one section, but rather pop up across the entire SAT. In reading, Analysis in History/Social or Analysis in Science questions tend to be those based on History/Social Studies or Science passages, respectively. The same goes for the questions in Writing and Language. As for Math, these questions tend tobe word problems or data interpretation questions based on graphics. Here are a few example problems to show you which questions College Board categories as Analysis in History/Social Studies or Science. These sample questionsfrom Reading are allconsidered to test yourAnalysis in History/Social Studies skills. This example from Writing and Language is categorized as Analysis in Science. This example from Math is considered to be an Analysis in History/Social Studies question. You can find more examples by taking a look at the scoring guidesto College Board’s free official SAT practice tests. Not only do they help you score your sections, but they also mark the questions that fall into these two skills categories. That way you can calculate your own cross-test scores as you grade your SAT practice tests. I’ll explain how to do this in more detail below, but first, let’s take a look at the other new score type on the SAT, subscores. SAT subscores are like a photo taken with a macro lens; they reveal your performance in close, sharp detail. What Are SAT Subscores? SAT subscores, like cross-test scores, measure your performance on questions that fall into certain skill areas. Unlike cross-test scores, subscores don’t mix and match questions between all three sections. You’ll get subscores for questions inMath and subscores for questions in Evidence-based Reading and Writing. You’ll get seven SAT subscores. In Math, your subscores will measure these skill areas: Heart of Algebra, Problem Solving and Data Analysis, and Passport to Advanced Math. In Evidence-based Reading and Writing, your subscores will measure Expression of Ideas, Standard English Conventions, Words in Context, and Command of Evidence. Of course, you’re not expected to know automatically which questions fall into which skill areas. Let’s take a moment to define each. You can also check out ourmore detailed guides with sample questions for each section and skill area. What Are the Seven Subscore Skill Areas? First, we’ll consider the three skill areas in Math, followed by the four skill areas in Evidence-based Reading and Writing. #1: Heart of Algebra. These math questions ask you to solve linear equation and linear inequalities, interpret linear functions, and solve linear equation, inequality, or function word problems. #2: Problem Solving and Data Analysis. These math questions ask you to calculate rates, ratios, and percentages, interpret scatterplots and tables, and draw conclusions from collections of data. #3: Passport to Advanced Math. These questions ask you to solve quadratic equations, interpret nonlinear expressions, interpret nonlinear equation graphs, solve operations with polynomials, and solve quadratic and exponential word problems. #4: Expression of Ideas. These (typically Writing) questions ask you to make word choice or structural changes to improve a passage’s organization or impact. #5: Standard English Conventions: These (typically Writing) questions ask about grammar, usage, sentence structure, and punctuation. #6: Words in Context. In Reading, these questions ask you to interpret the meaning of a word or phrase or determine how word choice shapes meaning, style, and tone. In Writing, they ask you to add or change a word to improve meaning. #7: Command of Evidence. These questions are varied. In Reading, they may ask you to state your evidence for your answer to a previous question or to identify how an author uses evidence to support her claims. In Writing, these questions typically ask you to improve the way a passage develops information and ideas. In both sections, they might ask about the relationship between a passage and its accompanying informational graphic. All of these subscores, along with the cross-test scores and other score types discussed, will show up on your SAT score report. However, they’re not for your eyes only. Your prospective colleges that you’ve indicated as score recipients will also get to see all your scores. These score types are new this year, so how are colleges going to use them as they evaluate you as an applicant? Just how crucial are your cross-test scores and subscores for college? As it stands now, not very. How Do Colleges Use Your SAT Cross-Test Scores and Subscores? According to College Board, your detailed score report is great at â€Å"highlighting your strengths and showing colleges that you’ve been building the skills and knowledge you need for college and career.† They’re meant to show that you have skills like Analysis in Science and Command of Evidence to do well in college courses and life in general after high school. At this point, though, it doesn’t appear that your cross-test or subscores are particularly important for colleges. Many colleges are still catching up to the changes in the new SAT and figuring out which test they’ll accept for Class of 2017 and Class of 2018 students. For now, your section and total scores remain the most important metric for applying to college and determining whether your SAT scores make you a competitive applicant. Even though these cross-test scores and subscores don’t seem particularly important for college yet, they can still play a very influentialrole in your SAT prep. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today! How Are SAT Cross-Test Scores and Subscores Useful? It may be tempting to look past these cross-test scores and subscores as unimportant, but they can actually be quite useful as feedback for your SAT prep. If you’re retaking the SAT, then you can use these scores to figure out your strengths and weaknesses as a test-taker. If you haven’t taken the SAT yet, then you can calculate these scores on your SAT practice tests to get the same information. For instance, you may be looking to raise your EBRW score. Your subscores may show that you’re solid on Expression of Ideas questions, but need to study grammar and usage rules to do better on Standard English Conventions questions. On Math, you may be strong onquestions in Heart of Algebra and Passport to Advanced Math questions, but need to focus your prep on Problem Solving and Data Analysis problems. Your cross-test scores and subscores point out the question types and skill areas that you should study to maximize your improvement for next time. As mentioned above, you don’t have to wait until you take the official SAT to get this kind of feedback. You can take the time to calculate your cross-test scores and subscores on your own from SAT practice tests. Figuring out your cross-test scores and subscores can be time-consuming, but it's well worth it if you're prepping for the SAT. How to Calculate Your Cross-Test Scores and Subscores from Practice Tests To score your practice tests, you can consult their accompanying scoring guide. As it turns out, the guidealso labels the questions that fall into the various skill areas pertinent to cross-test scores and subscores, like Analysis in Science, Words in Context, and Heart of Algebra. For instance, this example is taken from the scoring guideto College Board's SAT Practice Test 1 and tells you which questions fall into the Analysis in History/Social Studies and Analysis in Science skills categories: First, you use your practice test'sscoring guide to identify the relevant questions in a skill area. Then you calculate your raw score by simply adding one point for every correct answer. If you’re calculating your raw score for Words in Context questions, for example, then you would locate these questions with the help of the scoring guide and answer keyand add one point for every one you answered correctly. Then you can consult official conversion tables to convert your raw scores into scale scores. As you read above, your cross-test scores get converted into a scale from 10 to 40. Your subscores get converted to a scale between 1 and 15. Below are the cross-test score and subscore conversion tables provided by College Board. SAT Cross-Test Score Conversion Table (10 - 40) SAT Subscore Conversion Table (10 - 15) For an even more detailed list of step by step instructions for calculating your cross-test scores and subscores, you should consult ourcomprehensive guide on SAT scoring. While this process may feel a bit tedious and time-consuming, it can really be worth it. These scores can give you invaluable insight into your strengths and weaknesses as a test-taker and help you prep smarter for your next test. To Sum Up†¦ Your SAT score report may look like a bunch of confusing numbers at first, but hopefully, now you understand what all those scores mean. Your total scores will fall between 400 and 1600. Your section scores for Math and Evidence-based Reading and Writing range between 200 and 800. Your cross-test scores and subscores dig deeper into your performance, revealing how well you did on specific skill areas and question types. Cross-test scores, as their name indicates, sample questions across all three subjects. Subscores shed light on questions from Math and Evidence-based Reading and Writing. While these specific scores don’t seem to be particularly important for colleges yet, they will appear on your SAT score reports and be visible to admissions officers. For now, they’re most useful as feedback for your skills as a test-taker and areas for growth. Whether you’re looking at your official SAT score report or grading your own practice tests, you should take the time to interpret these scores. The insight they reveal into your strengths and weaknesses can be invaluable feedback as you sharpen your skills for the SAT. What’s Next? At this point, all students will be taking the redesigned SAT.If you're one of them, check out our comprehensive guide on how to study for the new SAT. You can also find lots of helpful strategies and study tip by section here. Just as cross-test scores and subscores can help you study in the most effective way, so too can taking the time to analyze your mistakes. Check out this guide to learn why studying your mistakes is the secret to boosting your scores and how to do it in the most effective way. Are you wondering how many hours of prep time you need to achieve your target scores? This 6 step guide helps you figure out exactly how long you need to study for the SAT to meet your goals. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Dissolve Styrofoam or Polystyrene in Acetone

Dissolve Styrofoam or Polystyrene in Acetone Dissolving Styrofoam or another polystyrene product in acetone is a spectacular demonstration of the solubility of this plastic in an organic solvent. It also illustrates just how much air is in the Styrofoam. All you need to do is to pour a bit of acetone into a bowl, and place Styrofoam beads, packing peanuts, chunks of foam, or even a Styrofoam cup in the container. The Styrofoam will dissolve in the acetone much like sugar dissolves in  hot water. Since Styrofoam is mostly air, you may be surprised by how much (or, in the end, how little) foam will dissolve in the acetone. A cup of acetone is enough to dissolve an entire bean bags worth of styrofoam beads. How It Works Styrofoam is made of polystyrene foam. When the polystyrene dissolves in the acetone, the air in the foam is released. This makes it look like youre dissolving a massive quantity of material into a small volume of liquid. You can see a less-dramatic version of the same effect by dissolving other polystyrene items in acetone. Common polystyrene products include disposable razors, plastic yogurt containers, plastic mailers, and CD jewel cases. The plastic dissolves in just about any organic solvent, not just acetone. Acetone is found in some nail polish removers. If you cant find this product, you could dissolve styrofoam in gasoline just as easily. Its best to do this project outdoors because acetone, gasoline, and other organic solvents tend  to be toxic when inhaled.